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Swift language
0001 Jun 1
5 minutes read

Swift language

https://developer.apple.com/library/prerelease/ios/navigation/
https://developer.apple.com/library/prerelease/mac/navigation/

https://developer.apple.com/library/prerelease/ios/documentation/Swift/Conceptual/Swift_Programming_Language/AboutTheLanguageReference.html#//apple_ref/doc/uid/TP40014097-CH29
https://developer.apple.com/library/prerelease/ios/documentation/Swift/Conceptual/Swift_Programming_Language/Methods.html

https://developer.apple.com/library/prerelease/ios/referencelibrary/GettingStarted/LandingPage/index.html

https://developer.apple.com/library/prerelease/ios/documentation/Swift/Conceptual/Swift_Programming_Language/GuidedTour.html#//apple_ref/doc/uid/TP40014097-CH2
https://developer.apple.com/library/prerelease/ios/documentation/Swift/Conceptual/Swift_Programming_Language/TheBasics.html#//apple_ref/doc/uid/TP40014097-CH5
https://developer.apple.com/library/prerelease/ios/documentation/Swift/Conceptual/Swift_Programming_Language/AboutTheLanguageReference.html#//apple_ref/doc/uid/TP40014097-CH29

https://developer.apple.com/library/prerelease/ios/documentation/DeveloperTools/Conceptual/WhatsNewXcode/Articles/xcode_6_0.html

Variables

var myVariable = 42
myVariable = 50
let myConstant = 42”

“let implicitInteger = 70
let implicitDouble = 70.0
let explicitDouble: Double = 70”

“let label = "The width is "
let width = 94
let widthLabel = label + String(width)”

let apples = 3
let oranges = 5
let appleSummary = "I have \(apples) apples."
let fruitSummary = "I have \(apples + oranges) pieces of fruit.”

“Use \() to include a floating-point calculation in a string and to include someone’s name in a greeting.”

Arrays Dict

var shoppingList = ["catfish", "water", "tulips", "blue paint"]
shoppingList[1] = "bottle of water"

var occupations = [
    "Malcolm": "Captain",
    "Kaylee": "Mechanic",
]
occupations["Jayne"] = "Public Relations”

initializer syntax

let emptyArray = String[]()
let emptyDictionary = Dictionary<String, Float>()

control flow

if, switch, for-in, for, while, do-while
let individualScores = [75, 43, 103, 87, 12]
var teamScore = 0
for score in individualScores {
    if score > 50 {
        teamScore += 3
    } else {
        teamScore += 1
    }
}
teamScore

optional values

var optionalString: String? = "Hello"
optionalString == nil
 
var optionalName: String? = "John Appleseed"
var greeting = "Hello!"
if let name = optionalName {
    greeting = "Hello, \(name)"
}
let vegetable = "red pepper"
switch vegetable {
case "celery":
    let vegetableComment = "Add some raisins and make ants on a log."
case "cucumber", "watercress":
    let vegetableComment = "That would make a good tea sandwich."
case let x where x.hasSuffix("pepper"):
    let vegetableComment = "Is it a spicy \(x)?"
default:
    let vegetableComment = "Everything tastes good in soup."
}
let interestingNumbers = [
    "Prime": [2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13],
    "Fibonacci": [1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8],
    "Square": [1, 4, 9, 16, 25],
]
var largest = 0
for (kind, numbers) in interestingNumbers {
    for number in numbers {
        if number > largest {
            largest = number
        }
    }
}
largest
var n = 2
while n < 100 {
    n = n * 2
}
n
 
var m = 2
do {
    m = m * 2
} while m < 100
m
var firstForLoop = 0
for i in 0..3 {
    firstForLoop += i
}
firstForLoop
 
var secondForLoop = 0
for var i = 0; i < 3; ++i {
    secondForLoop += 1
}
secondForLoop
“func greet(name: String, day: String) -> String {
    return "Hello \(name), today is \(day)."
}
greet("Bob", "Tuesday")”
func getGasPrices() -> (Double, Double, Double) {
    return (3.59, 3.69, 3.79)
}
getGasPrices()
func sumOf(numbers: Int...) -> Int {
    var sum = 0
    for number in numbers {
        sum += number
    }
    return sum
}
sumOf()
sumOf(42, 597, 12)
func returnFifteen() -> Int {
    var y = 10
    func add() {
        y += 5
    }
    add()
    return y
}
returnFifteen()
func makeIncrementer() -> (Int -> Int) {
    func addOne(number: Int) -> Int {
        return 1 + number
    }
    return addOne
}
var increment = makeIncrementer()
increment(7)
func hasAnyMatches(list: Int[], condition: Int -> Bool) -> Bool {
    for item in list {
        if condition(item) {
            return true
        }
    }
    return false
}
func lessThanTen(number: Int) -> Bool {
    return number < 10
}
var numbers = [20, 19, 7, 12]
hasAnyMatches(numbers, lessThanTen)
numbers.map({
    (number: Int) -> Int in
    let result = 3 * number
    return result
    })”
numbers.map({ number in 3 * number })

sort([1, 5, 3, 12, 2]) { $0 > $1 }
“class Shape {
    var numberOfSides = 0
    func simpleDescription() -> String {
        return "A shape with \(numberOfSides) sides."
    }
}”
“var shape = Shape()
shape.numberOfSides = 7
var shapeDescription = shape.simpleDescription()”
“class NamedShape {
    var numberOfSides: Int = 0
    var name: String
    
    init(name: String) {
        self.name = name
    }
    
    func simpleDescription() -> String {
        return "A shape with \(numberOfSides) sides."
    }
}”
class Square: NamedShape {
    var sideLength: Double
    
    init(sideLength: Double, name: String) {
        self.sideLength = sideLength
        super.init(name: name)
        numberOfSides = 4
    }
    
    func area() ->  Double {
        return sideLength * sideLength
    }
    
    override func simpleDescription() -> String {
        return "A square with sides of length \(sideLength)."
    }
}

let test = Square(sideLength: 5.2, name: "my test square")
test.area()
test.simpleDescription()
class EquilateralTriangle: NamedShape {
    var sideLength: Double = 0.0
    
    init(sideLength: Double, name: String) {
        self.sideLength = sideLength
        super.init(name: name)
        numberOfSides = 3
    }
    
    var perimeter: Double {
        get {
            return 3.0 * sideLength
        }
        set {
            sideLength = newValue / 3.0
        }
    }
    
    override func simpleDescription() -> String {
        return "An equilateral triagle with sides of length \(sideLength)."
    }
}

var triangle = EquilateralTriangle(sideLength: 3.1, name: "a triangle")
triangle.perimeter
triangle.perimeter = 9.9
triangle.sideLength
class TriangleAndSquare {
    var triangle: EquilateralTriangle {
    willSet {
        square.sideLength = newValue.sideLength
    }
    }
    var square: Square {
    willSet {
        triangle.sideLength = newValue.sideLength
    }
    }
    init(size: Double, name: String) {
        square = Square(sideLength: size, name: name)
        triangle = EquilateralTriangle(sideLength: size, name: name)
    }
}
var triangleAndSquare = TriangleAndSquare(size: 10, name: "another test shape")
triangleAndSquare.square.sideLength
triangleAndSquare.triangle.sideLength
triangleAndSquare.square = Square(sideLength: 50, name: "larger square")
triangleAndSquare.triangle.sideLength
class Counter {
    var count: Int = 0
    func incrementBy(amount: Int, numberOfTimes times: Int) {
        count += amount * times
    }
}
var counter = Counter()
counter.incrementBy(2, numberOfTimes: 7)
let optionalSquare: Square? = Square(sideLength: 2.5, name: "optional square")
let sideLength = optionalSquare?.sideLength
enum Rank: Int {
    case Ace = 1
    case Two, Three, Four, Five, Six, Seven, Eight, Nine, Ten
    case Jack, Queen, King
    func simpleDescription() -> String {
        switch self {
        case .Ace:
            return "ace"
        case .Jack:
            return "jack"
        case .Queen:
            return "queen"
        case .King:
            return "king"
        default:
            return String(self.toRaw())
        }
    }
}
let ace = Rank.Ace
let aceRawValue = ace.toRaw()

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