Stretching Scientifically - Thomas Kurz
Types of Flexibilities
Static Active Range
Static Passive Range
Types of Stretching Activities
- involves moving parts of your body and gradually increasing reach, speed of movement, or both. Perform your exercises (for instance, leg raises or arm swings) in sets of eight to twelve repetitions.
Movements are controlled thoroughly even though they are quite fast.
Do not involve stopping and holding the stretched position.
Increases dynamic active flexibility.
Static Active Stretching
- involves moving your body into a stretch and holding it there through the tension of the muscle-agonists in this movement.
Increase both your static active range of motion and your static passive range of motion.
15 seconds static active stretches are more effective on active range of motion.
5 or 15 seconds cause similar increases in the passive range of motion.
Static Passive Stretching
- involves relaxing your body into a stretch and holding it there by the weight of your body or by some other external force.
More effective than dynamic stretching for increasing the static passive range of motion.
For increasing static range of motion the most effective duration of relaxed stretches is 30 seconds, and the most effective frequency is once per day.
- Using positions similar to those in static passive stretching and adding the strong tensions of stretched muscles, you can cause postcontractive relaxations and. subsequently, increases in the stretch. For a greater effect as you relax the stretched muscle, you can tense its antagonists, i.e., the muscles that oppose it. When you achieve your maximal (at this stage of training) stretch, you hold the last tension for several seconds.
End of a workout is the time when isometric stretches are most effective.
Fastest and the most efficient method of increasing static passive range of motion.
To increase static passive flexibility do isometric stretches at least twice a week.
Doing both isometric and static active stretching, you will most quickly develop static forms of flexibility.
To develop passive mobility up to 90% of what is anatomically possible, for ankle and kneejoints it usually takes up to 30 days; for joints of the spine, up to 60 days; and for hip joints, from 60 to 120 days.
Strength exercises done throughout the full range of motion in crease active range of motion and so reduce the difference be tween passive and active range of motion.
Doing both passive stretching and strength exercises increases both passive and active range of motion while decreasing the dif ference between them.
- use the momentum of a fast-moving body or a limb to forcibly and abruptly increase the range of motion.
Ballistic or bounce stretches may result in immediate as well as residual pain.
Stretching in workout
Use dynamic stretches right after waking up as your morning stretch, and later, at the beginning of your workout, as a part of a warm-up.
Do static stretches after dynamic exercises such as running, jumping, throwing, kicking, or wrestling that make up the main part of youг workout, preferably in a cool-down.
Doing static stretches in the warm-up for a workout that consists of dynamic actions is counterproductive, and it certainly does not prevent injuries
- The general warm-up. including cardiovascular warm-up and general, dynamic stretching
- The specific warm-up, in which movements resemble more closely the actual subject of the workout
- The main part of the workout, in which you realize your task for this workout
- The cool-down.